This document has been updated : please check for the latest version at lenr.qumbu.com

Note: I have temporarily put the March Experiment at the top -- as it is "breaking news" and still in progress. For an introduction to the "proof" methodology as a whole, scroll down to the Introduction.

I have not yet updated the conclusions or abstract.

1. March 2011 Experiment

A new test had just been released, with pictures of a smaller 5kW device with and without shielding and insulation.

Swedish physicists on the E-cat: “It’s a nuclear reaction”

“In some way a new kind of physics is taking place. It’s enigmatic, but probably no new laws of nature are involved. We believe it is possible to explain the process with known laws of nature,” said Hanno Essén, associate professor of theoretical physics and a lecturer at the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology and chairman of the Swedish Skeptics Society.

The new trial was conducted in much the same way as the trial in January, and lasted for nearly six hours. According to observations by Kullander and Essén, a total energy of about 25 kWh was generated.

Experimental test of a mini-Rossi device at the Leonardocorp, Bologna 29 March 2011.

Participants: Giuseppe Levi, David Bianchini, Carlo Leonardi, Hanno Essén, Sven Kullander, Andrea Rossi, Sergio Focardi. Travel report by Hanno Essén and Sven Kullander, 3 April 2011.

Any chemical process for producing 25 kWh from any fuel in a 50 cm3 container can be ruled out. The only alternative explanation is that there is some kind of a nuclear process that gives rise to the measured energy production.

1.1. Photos

Fig 5 Fig 2 Fig 4 Fig 3

During the running we used the rightmost one of the devices, figure 4, which is surrounded by a 2 cm thick lead shield, as stated by Rossi, and wrapped with insulation, figure 5. We had free access to the heater electric supply, to the inlet water hose, to the outlet steam valve and water hose and to the hydrogen gas feed pipe. The total weight of the device was estimated to be around 4 kg.

I read "As stated by Rossi" as "He said so and we believed him" -- not that "he previously stated it but we inspected it".

Later in the report they say:

Discussion. Since we do not have access to the internal design of the central fuel container and no information on the external lead shielding and the cooling water system we can only make very general comments.

Nor do they provide a photograph showing the insulation and the lead shield of the horizontal arm.

There is therefore NO proof in the report that the wrapped, horizontal arm contains only equipment identical to the three unwrapped devices.

They DID inspect the vertical arm by unwrapping the insulation (Fig 4), but did NOT inspect the inside of the "chimney".

The complete horizontal arm and the vertical chimney therefore have to be included as "Fake".

Fig E
Ruler rotated in photoshop

The total volume of the REACTOR was estimated as a sphere::

Reactor Sphere diameter: 7.00 cm
volume: 179.59 cm3 = 0.1796 L

Since the horizontal arm was NOT inspected, I have estimated its volume:

Fig F1

Scale ruler from fig 3 onto Fig 2 = 10cm

Fig F2

Repeat for Length of Horizontal arm = 30cm (Any foreshortening would over-estimate the length.)

Fig F3

Scale rule to diameter of reactor = 7 cm

Fig F4

Step and Repeat for diameter of horizontal arm = 25cm

Horizontal Arm : cylinder, length: 30.00 cm diameter: 25.00 cm
volume: 14725.78 cm3 = 14.7258 L

TODO: estimate the volume of the "steam outlet" section.

The things we know about the March apparatus as a whole are:

  • The Control Unit was inspected.
  • The input power to the controller
  • The power from the controller to the eCat was estimated
    (The results would not be significantly changed if ALL the input power were sent to the eCat)
  • The pressure in the hydrogen bottle.
  • The estimated pressure with which the reactor was charged.
  • The input water volume and temperature
  • The output steam temperature and dryness
  • ESTIMATED volume of the Reactor is 0.18 liters (from photos)
  • The volume of the wrapped horizontal arm (from photos)
  • The volume of the vertical chimney (from photos)
  • The mass of the eCat was reported as 4kg -- but it is not clear which parts are included.

The things we do NOT know about the March apparatus include:

  • The amount of Hydrogen used
  • The VOLUME of the REACTOR CHAMBER -- reported by Rossi to be 50cc
  • The weights before and after
  • Whether all the water that went in came out as steam (see Water Diversion, below).
  • Whether any air was taken in by the device, or combustion products released.

The measured values as given in Experimental test of a mini-Rossi device at the Leonardocorp, Bologna 29 March 2011 are:

  • Duration: 5 hours 45 minutes was steam-producing
  • Flow Rate: 6.47 L/Hr
  • Input Power : 300W
  • Excess Power 4.39 kW
  • Factor 4.39/0.3 = 14.6
  • Excess Energy (Excess Power x Run Time): 25.2 kWH
  • Hydrogen: less than 0.1 g of hydrogen was consumed.
    If the hydrogen had been burned it would have produced 0.0157 MJ (0.00437 kWH)

Note: the amount of hydrogen used was NOT measured. They ACCEPTED Rossi's statement that the central chamber was 50cc. The pressure and mass of hydrogen used could have been used to confirm the volume of the central chamber.

Essen and Kullander consider Nickel and Hydrogen forming Nickel Hydride as a possible fake candidate :

The enthalpy from the chemical formation of nickel and hydrogen to nickel hydride is 4850 joule/mol [6].

But taking the fake as 100% nickel, with EXTERNAL hydrogen, gives an energy density of

Energy by volume : 0.736 MJ/L

which is much lower than other candidates, so I have not used it in an "experiment".

I have included the following in the results below:

  • Wrapped Horizontal arm
  • External Reactor Volume
  • Reactor chamber volume reported by Rossi

Preliminary Conclusion:

Because the horizontal arm was NOT inspected "unwrapped", we have to assume it contained FAKE material. The 6 hour test was NOT long enough to eliminate all of the fakes.

Personal opinion:

This test was probably NOT intended to be a conclusive proof of the device, but was, rather, a preliminary demonstration to the two Swedish observers, who had previously communicated with Rossi only by email. The horizontal arm PROBABLY contained a mini-eCat -- but that is not PROOF.

2. Abstract (Needs updating for the March experiment)

A new "Cold Fusion" device was recently demonstrated at the University of Bologna, Italy on Jan 15, 2011. Unlike the Pons and Fleischmann setup, which uses Palladium and Deuterium and can take months to perform an experiment, the Rossi/Focardi eCAT uses Hydrogen and Nickel, produces large amounts of power (more than 10kW), and can be turned on and off on command.

A total of three experiments were performed : One in December 2010 by a panel of independent scientists (led by prof Levi), one in January 2011, attended by the same scientists and invited press, and one in February 2011 attended only by Levi, and for which a formal report has not been issued.

This paper attempts to prove that the Rossi/Focardi device is real, by ruling out all known fakes. For any particular fake the total energy and run-time is computed, assuming that the ENTIRE unknown volume is occupied by the fake material, and that its conversion to heat energy is 100% efficient. If the fake could run LONGER than the experiment, then it is NOT eliminated. If the fake would run out of fuel before the end of the experiment, then the fake is eliminated.

If ALL known fakes are eliminated, then the device must be real.

The December/January experiments were too short to rule out ANY of these theoretical fakes. But if Levi's informal reports on the February trial are accepted, then ALL fakes are eliminated.

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3. Introduction

A new "Cold Fusion" or "LENR" (Low Energy Nuclear Reactions) device -- the Rossi/Focardi Energy Catalyzer or eCAT was recently demonstrated at the University of Bologna, Italy on Jan 15, 2011: Rossi-Focardi Energy Catalyzer

An additional experiment was performed in February : Cold Fusion: 18 hour test excludes combustion

A good summary of these is given by Scott Chubb Infinite Energy • Issue 96 • March/April 2011

Cold fusion was first announced by Pons and Fleischmann in 1989, and was rapidly "debunked". But contrary to popular (and mainstream scientific) opinion, Cold Fusion was never actually disproved (see the history section.) Work has continued in a variety of private, university and government studies, with an annual ICCF conference, now in its 17th year. Most of the work has concentrated on the Pons and Fleischmann setup, which uses Palladium and Deuterium. It has been replicated hundreds of times, though experiments can take months to run, and require sophisticated calorimetry.

In contrast, the Rossi/Focardi eCAT uses Hydrogen and Nickel, produces large amounts of power (more than 10kW), and can be turned on and off on command. Rossi plans to install a 1MW water-heating plant, made by connecting 100 10kW devices in series and parallel, in Athens, Greece, in October 2011.

Both of these eCAT demonstrations were primarily a "black box" calorimetry experiment. Because his patent application has not yet been approved, Rossi declines to make detailed comments on the process, or to let anyone see inside his "reactor chamber".

Villa notes in his report on the January experiment:

In the present test, as a precautionary attitude, whatever was not known, not disclosed or not understood has been considered as the energy source. This forces to consider relevant only very large energy productions, as those described in [1] where the reactor has been working for weeks and month
....
The duration of the tests would be directly proportional to the mass and volume of unknown origin. For the present set-up a convincing evidence would include a power production of (order of) 10 kW sustained for weeks in a controlled and monitorized environment.

This paper attempts to put numbers to that philosophy, by calculating UPPER BOUNDS on what any known chemical process could produce.

If it's not real, how can the experiment be faked? And if it's faked, how can we detect it, or eliminate it?

As Sherlock Holmes said in The Adventure of the Beryl Coronet:

“It is an old maxim of mine that when you have excluded the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth.

If all possible fakes are eliminated then the eCat must be real -- even though we do not know how it works. If current science can't explain it, then the science is wrong.

4. History

Cold fusion was first announced by Pons and Fleischmann in 1989, and was rapidly "debunked".

But contrary to popular (and mainstream scientific) opinion, Cold Fusion was never actually disproved.

Cravens And Letts (The Enabling Criteria of Electrochemical Heat: Beyond Reasonable Doubt) performed a statistical analysis of 167 papers, and identified 4 criteria which were satisfied in all successful experiments (including Pons and Fleischmann's original paper), and in which one or more were omitted in failed experiments -- including all the original "Debunking" papers. The most important are Lewis (Caltech) -- where NONE of these criteria were met, and Williams (Harwell), in which only ONE was met. These two papers effectively removed Cold Fusion from main stream science (and funding). Cravens And Letts point out that although ignoring these criteria almost guarantees failure, following them improves, but does not ensure success. Alchemists were well advised to include the "eye of newt" in their potions, since they did not understand which of the many steps were critical to success, and which were irrelevant. Perhaps those alchemists used better science than Lewis and Williams.

Also see Krivit: How Can Cold Fusion Be Real, Considering It Was Disproved By Several Well-Respected Labs In 1989?

Work has continued in a variety of private, university and government studies (Experiments), with an annual ICCF conference, now in its 17th year. Hundreds of papers have been written, some in peer-reviewed mainstream journals. (Library).

Most of the work has concentrated on the Pons and Fleischmann setup, which uses Palladium and Deuterium. It has been replicated hundreds of times. However, it has not reached 100% reproducibility. Experiments take months to "load" the deuterium into the palladium (though recent experiments with co-depositing deuterium and palladium eliminate this step), and are not guaranteed to work. (Though a set of cathodes which work in one experiment will almost always work in a different set-up). They require very subtle calorimetry over a long period, which introduces doubt into the results.

In addition to the calorimetric results, a 'CR-39' polycarbonate detector (long used by the Russians) placed next to the electrode shows clear evidence of high-energy particles (Mossier-Boss et al : Use of CR-39 in Pd/D co-deposition experiments and Reply to a comment .. by Kowalski).

The first reported work using Nickel and Hydrogen was by Francesco Piantelli (See articles by Krivit: Deuterium and Palladium Not Required and Piantelli-Focardi Publication and Replication Path ).

The Rossi/Focardi eCat uses Hydrogen and Nickel, produces large amounts of energy (more than 10kW), and can be turned on and off on command.

5. eCAT Demonstrator Apparatus


Image from Passerini Report (January 2011)
Image from Levi report (December 2010?).

The setup is

                                              *======> steam 
                                              |        outlet
                                         *---------*
                                         |    :    |
                                         |    :    |
                                         | Vertical|
                            Main         | Arm     | 
                            Unit         |    :    |
                                         |    :    |
                           Horizontal Arm|    :    |
                           *-------------*    :    |
                           |    Reactor       :    |
                           |   * - - - - - -* :    |
                           |   :Shielding   : :    |
           *------*        |   *- - - - - - * :    |
Water  ====| pump |=======>|::>: Heat       :-*    |
           *------*        |   : Exchanger  :      |
       *--------------*    |   *- - - - - - *      |
AC:--->| Control Unit |===>|::>: Resistors  :      |
       *--------------*    |   *- - - - - --*      |
            *------*       |   : Chamber    :      |
Compressed  | H    |======>|::>: Ni/H       :      |
Hydrogen    |      |       |   *- - - - - - *      |
            *------*       |                       |
            ^^^^^^^^       *-----------------------*
            scale            ||                || metal legs
                        *============================* 
                                 board
The components are:
  • Main Unit (Made up of a Horizontal and Vertical Arm)
  • Horizontal Arm : Contains the Reactor Unit, reportedly made up of:
    • Chamber -- contains Nickel, fed with Hydrogen
    • Resistors -- used to "ignite" the reactor, then lowered to maintain the reaction
    • Heat exchanger -- heats and/or boils the water.
    • Radiation Shielding -- Lead
  • Vertical Arm
  • Water and Pump
  • Control Unit powered from an AC wall-plug.
  • Compressed Hydrogen bottle, weighed before and after.

The entire Horizontal and Vertical arms were enveloped in tinfoil for the December/January trials.

The presence or absence of any evidence of nuclear activity is NOT considered in this paper.

Operation:

  • Load the reactor with hydrogen
  • Apply 1 kW through the control panel until the reactor "ignites"
  • Reduce the input power to 400 W (Jan) or 80 W (Feb)
  • Pump water in at a measured rate and temperature
  • Jan: Observe steam output, measure temperature and dryness
    OR
    Feb: Measure the water temperature at the outlet
  • Accurately measure the weight of the hydrogen bottle, before and after

6. Experiments

6.1. January 2011 Experiment

In December 2010 a team of scientists was allowed to examine the device, and performed a number of experiments.

In January 2011 a "press" demonstration was held -- though the reactor developed an internal problem (reportedly on the leads to an internal heating resistor), took a long time to "ignite", and ran at lower efficiency (higher input power).

These two will be referred to as the "January" apparatus and experiment.

The things we know about the January apparatus as a whole are:

  • The input power to the controller
  • The input water volume and temperature
  • The output steam temperature and dryness
  • The amount of hydrogen used
  • ESTIMATED volumes of the various elements (Villa)
    (These could be confirmed from the photographs).
  • A very rough estimate of the weight of the Control Box (Levi)

Villa reported:

The basic observable elements are an horizontal metallic tube (approximate length 70 cm, diameter 20 cm, 22 l volume, 30 kg weight as a guess-estimate) as the reaction chamber, a vertical tube for steam output (50 cm length, 15 cm diameter, 9 l volume), a control system box (approx 40x40x40 cm3 dimensions, 64 l volume, unknown weight), a water pump and an hydrogen bottle.

Levi reported:

Prudentially I have lifted the control box in search for any other eventually hidden cable and found none. The weight of the control box was of few Kg.

The things we do NOT know about the January apparatus include:

  • The contents of the controller
  • The power from the controller to the main unit
  • The output steam volume
  • The weights before and after, other than the hydrogen bottle
  • Whether any air was taken in by the device, or combustion products released.

ASSUMING that ALL the water was converted to steam the total OUTPUT energy was computed:

  • Heat water to boiling point
  • Convert to steam
  • Heat the steam

Given the rate of flow, the output power (kW) was calculated, and the INPUT power (kW) to the controller was subtracted.

The volume of the various elements were estimated by Mauro Villa to be:

  • Control Box 60 liters
  • Horizontal Arm 22 liters
  • Vertical Arm 9 liters

The measured values as summarized in LENR-CANR News are:

  • Duration: 1 hour, of which 30 minutes was steam-producing
  • Flow Rate: 17.5 L/Hr (292 ml/min)
  • Input Power : 400W
  • Excess Power 12.5 kW
  • Factor 12.5/0.4 = 31
  • Excess Energy (Excess Power x Run Time): 6.25 kWH
  • Hydrogen: less than 0.1 g of hydrogen was consumed.
    If the hydrogen had been burned it would have produced 0.0143 MJ (0.00397 kWH)

At the press conference Rossi announced that they have a working system providing heating in their own plant (presumably with multiple eCATS), and that he plans to install a 1MW Plant in Athens, Greece in October, 2011.

Reports:

6.2. February 2011 Experiment

The February trial reportedly had the same general structure, except that is was only used to HEAT water, not to convert it to steam.

The primary observer of the February run, Prof Levi, was allowed to examine everything EXCLUDING the reactor chamber, which he estimated to be about 1 liter in volume. He reported that a lot of the volume of the horizontal and vertical arms was insulation, and that lead shielding was visible around the reactor chamber.

Nyteknik.se: Cold Fusion: 18 hour test excludes combustion

“This time I opened the control unit (and examined the interior), as someone said that it could contain a hidden battery. And I can swear in court that the box was empty, except for the control electronics – five very simple PLCs – and it weighed about seven kilograms,” said Levi.

“I have also seen inside the reactor device itself – most of the volume is isolation, and most of the weight of about 30 kg is due to lead.”

He confirmed that the reactor chamber, supposedly containing nickel powder, the secret catalysts and hydrogen gas, had a volume of around one liter. The reactor chamber was the only part he could not inspect.


LENR-CANR: Rossi 18-hour demonstration

On February 10 and 11, 2011, Levi et al. (U. Bologna) performed another test of the Rossi device. Compared to the January 14 test, they used a much higher flow rate, to keep the cooling water from vaporizing. This is partly to recover more heat, and partly because Celani and others criticized phase-change calorimetry as too complicated. There were concerns about the enthalpy of wet steam versus dry steam, and the use of a relative humidity meter to determine how dry the steam was. A source close to the test gave Jed Rothwell the following figures. These are approximations: ....

The things we know about the February apparatus as a whole are:

  • The Control Unit and all parts of the Main Unit excluding the reactor were inspected.
  • The input power to the controller
  • The input water volume and temperature
  • The output water temperature
  • The amount of hydrogen used
  • ESTIMATED volume of the reactor CHAMBER is 1 liter
  • ESTIMATED mass of the REACTOR (Levi reports that the mass was 30 kg)

The things we do NOT know about the February apparatus include:

  • The power from the controller to the main unit
  • The VOLUME of the whole REACTOR.
  • The weights before and after, other than the hydrogen bottle
  • Whether any air was taken in by the device, or combustion products released.

The values reported by Rothwell are:

  • Run Time: 18 hours
  • Flow Rate: 3,000 L/h = ~833 ml/s.
  • Cooling water input temperature: 15°C
  • Cooling water output temperature: ~20°C
  • Input power from control electronics: variable, average 80 W, closer to 20 W for 6 hours
  • Excess Power 16 kW
  • Factor 16/0.08 = 200
  • Excess Energy (Excess Power x Run Time): 288 kWH
  • Hydrogen: less than 0.4 g of hydrogen was consumed.
    If the hydrogen had been burned it would have produced 0.0572 MJ (0.0159 kWH)

However, the some of the values reported in Nyteknik are significantly different (and in favor of Rossi's eCAT):

“Minimum power was 15 kilowatts, and that’s a conservative value. I calculated it several times. At night we did a measurement and the device then worked very stable and produced 20 kilowatts.”

Initially, the temperature of the inflowing water was seven degrees Celsius and for a while the outlet temperature was 40 degrees Celsius. A flow rate of about one liter per second, equates to a peak power of 130 kilowatts. The power output was later stabilized at 15 to 20 kilowatts.

Note : Levi has not released a report of this experiment, and Rossi has declined to comment on it.

This paper uses Rothwell's numbers.

6.3. Recent Events

Rossi continues to provide a trickle of information (some of it conflicting with previous statements) on his blog JANUARY 15th FOCARDI AND ROSSI PRESS CONFERENCE

For instance, he now now indicates that it is not the ELECTRICAL power which modulates the output, but the HYDROGEN:

Our plants of 1 MW are made with series and parallels of 10 kW modules. Our 10 kW modules have been tested from 2 years and we have a deep knowledge of them. If the temperature or the pressure inside the apparatus goes critic we cut the hydrogen supply and cool down the E-Cat increasing the flow of water as much as necessary. Consider that we do not use radioactive materials and we do not produce rad waste, that a single module has a volume of about 1 liter and is very easy to cool down with water. Every module is controlled indipendently from the others and if one module has to be stopped the others can work.

Through a live interview with NyTeknik Rossi answered a number of questions : E-cat inventor in live chat with the readers (+ Video Interview) and And here are 36 more questions – with Rossi's answers -- though many of these were not technical in nature.

He recently appeared on a US Radio Program : Andrea Rossi with Sterling Allan on Coast to Coast AM

There is some evidence that the Hydrogen/Nickel reaction can become self-sustaining, so the ratio of output to input electrical power would become infinite.

Since the February experiment was reported, Rossi has reportedly PAID the University of Bologna €500,000 to investigate and develop the eCat device, and presumably under a non-disclosure agreement: This is how Rossi is financing his E-cat (this Nyteknik article also gives some background on Rossi). Another Nyteknik interview explores the manufacturing : Cold Fusion: Here's the Greek company building 1 MW

Rossi has stated that NO experimental results will be published for at least a year.

Since many of the original independent observers are now presumed to be under contract to Rossi, some might question their future impartiality. However, as Levi noted:

“If I were an old professor with his career already done, then I would not have anything to risk. But any attempt at fraud on my part would be a terrible personal goal. What could I hope for? To have a title for ten days, and then be thrown from my own department. Because (the matter of) fraud comes up sooner or later. There is no hope for it. So if I ... well, I would be really stupid. Honestly, I would be really stupid!”

7. Methodology for FAKE eCATS and their Detection

As Villa reported:

In the present test, as a precautionary attitude, whatever was not known, not disclosed or not understood has been considered as the energy source.
....
The duration of the tests would be directly proportional to the mass and volume of unknown origin.

The general methodology for Batteries and Chemicals is:

  • Choose some kind of FAKE (eg batteries)
  • Presume that the ENTIRE unknown structure is made up of the Fake material.
  • Make NO allowances for implementation efficiency.
  • Make NO allowance for practicality (the material or combustion products might be fatally toxic: the required equipment would be impossibly small).
  • Use the energy density (by weight or by volume) to determine the MAXIMUM energy content of the fake.
  • Using the observed excess POWER (kW) of the system, determine how long you would have to run it to exhaust the energy.
  • If that time is LESS than the observed run time, then the FAKE is eliminated.

Some kinds of fake could also be detected by analyzing the output:

  • Analyze the chemical composition of the output, to make sure no 'combustion' products are hidden
  • Make sure that all the water which goes IN goes OUT
  • Weigh the device before and after, to see whether chemicals have been consumed, or combustion products stored

... but see Rothwell's Razor, below.

Rothwell argues that some kinds of fakes would have been NOTICED by the observers (For example, if Diesel fuel were burned, there would be copious, fatally asphyxiating fumes --- though in the January experiment they could theoretically have been piped out of the room in the steam pipe.). However, this paper takes an extremely conservative position, distinguishing between "not NOTICED" and "tested and NOT FOUND":

  • Anything which is not TESTED must be ruled in favor of the FAKE.

If both the Volume AND the weight are known, then calculate the maximum run time for both, and use the LOWER number.

These calculations assume that the experiment is run at constant power for the duration of the experiment, although during the February test there were reports that it produced 130 kW for short periods. In this case one would compare the total energy output of the fake and the measured values : it is not as easy to predict the time required to eliminate the fake.

If all fakes are eliminated, then, As Sherlock Holmes said -- again and again -- this time in The Sign of the Four:

“You will not apply my precept,” he said, shaking his head. “How often have I said to you that when you have eliminated the impossible whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth?

8. Organization

First, we define the Equipment Sections, giving the weight and volume.

Section Abrev Mass Volume
kg L
Section Name 1SEC-111.00012.000
Section Name 2SEC-221.00022.000
Section Name 3SEC-331.00032.000

Then we define various "Fake Materials" which could be used.

Material Abrev Energy
by Mass
Energy
by Volume
Comment
MJ/kg kWH/kg MJ/L kWH/L
Material 1MAT-112.300 3.41745.60012.667 

Finally, we construct "Experiments", in which we put various materials in the sections of the unit (presently fixed at three sections), note the POWER that the experiment produced, and the TIME it ran for.

We calculate and add up the total ENERGY that the sections could contain, and calculate how long the FAKE could run at the observed POWER level.

If the FAKE could run LONGER than the actual experiment, then it is NOT eliminated.

If the FAKE only runs SHORTER than the actual experiment, then it is ELIMINATED.

Experiment 1 : All sections contain MAT-1
Section SEC-1 SEC-2 SEC-3 Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material MAT-1 MAT-1 MAT-1 Fake Expt
Energy 152  kWH 279  kWH 405  kWH 836  kWH 10.0  kW 83.6  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
Fake can run longer than the experiment: fake is NOT eliminated

Experiment 2 : Only SEC-2 contain MAT-1
Section SEC-1 SEC-2 SEC-3 Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - MAT-1 - Fake Expt
Energy 279  kWH 279  kWH 16.0  kW 17.4  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
Fake cannot run as long as the experiment -- Fake is eliminated

9. Equipment Sections

9.1. Control Box

Villa reported the volume as 60 liters.
In January Levi reported its weight as "a few kg".
In February Levi looked inside the control box, and reports its weight as 7 kg

Section Abrev Mass Volume
kg L
Control BoxCtrl 7.00060.000

9.2. Horizontal Arm

The weight is unknown -- estimated by Villa as 30 kg
Villa reported the volume as 22 liters.
Levi reported in February that much of the volume is insulation.

Section Abrev Mass Volume
kg L
Horizontal ArmHorz-22.000

9.3. Vertical Arm

The weight is unknown.
Villa reported the volume as 9 liters.
Levi reported in February that there are no hidden components.

Section Abrev Mass Volume
kg L
Vertical ArmVert- 9.000

9.4. Reactor

In February Levi reported:

  • The mass of the reactor is 30 kg, and that most of that is lead.
  • The volume of the Reactor CHAMBER is 1 liter, but did not give not the volume of the REACTOR as a whole.

Pending further information, this paper ASSUMES that the volume of the reactor as a whole is HALF the volume of the Horizontal Arm

Section Abrev Mass Volume
kg L
ReactorReact30.00011.000
Reactor ChamberChamber- 1.000

9.5. March Components

Section Abrev Mass Volume
kg L
Horizontal ArmHorz-14.726
Vertical ArmVert--
ReactorReact- 0.180
Reactor ChamberChamber- 0.050

10. Batteries and Chemicals

This section describes various techniques and materials which could be possibly used to construct a fake.

The materials are selected from Wikipedia Energy Density
(Unfortunately not all entries give the Energy by volume AND by weight.)

The Wiki table gives the Energy Density for some materials, assuming that oxygen is obtained from an external source. If the oxidant also has to be stored, then the Energy Density is reduced in proportion to the mass or volume of the two components. These calculations are shown in a separate section.

The materials selected represent the highest efficiency for any class.

These all have the characteristic that they contain a fixed amount of energy, and can therefore only run for a limited time. A fake made from batteries or chemicals simply has to be run for long enough to exhaust the material.

Batteries could be contained in the Control Box, and in the Main Unit.

10.1. Lithium Ion Batteries

Lithium-Ion batteries are listed as the most efficient by volume.

(Lead-Acid batteries are listed for comparison.)

Material Abrev Energy
by Mass
Energy
by Volume
Comment
MJ/kg kWH/kg MJ/L kWH/L
Lead-Acid BatteriesLead B 0.140 0.039 0.360 0.100 
Lithium-Ion BatteriesL-i B 0.720 0.200 3.600 1.000 

Lithium-Sodium batteries are listed as a higher Energy Density by Mass -- but the volume is not given.

10.2. Hydrogen Fuel Cell

This method uses a Hydrogen Fuel Cell, which could deliver electric power from the Control Box to the Main Unit.

It could use compressed or liquid Hydrogen, in conjunction with external air, compressed Oxygen or liquid oxygen.

Material Abrev Energy
by Mass
Energy
by Volume
Comment
MJ/kg kWH/kg MJ/L kWH/L
Compressed Hydrogen/External Air Fuel CellCH/Air-FC143.00039.723 5.600 1.556 
Liquid Hydrogen/External Air Fuel CellLH/Air-FC143.00039.72310.100 2.806 
Compressed Hydrogen/Compressed Oxygen Fuel CellCH/CO-FC15.990 4.442 3.734 1.037 
Liquid Hydrogen/Liquid Oxygen Fuel CellLH/LO-FC15.990 4.442 3.748 1.041 

Comments : the by-product is water, which could be vented, or, if burned with oxygen, condensed and stored.

10.3. Hydrogen burned with Air or Oxygen

This could be used in the main unit only.

This method burns compressed or liquid Hydrogen with external air, compressed Oxygen or Liquid Oxygen

Material Abrev Energy
by Mass
Energy
by Volume
Comment
MJ/kg kWH/kg MJ/L kWH/L
Compressed Hydrogen/External AirCH/Air143.00039.723 5.600 1.556 
Liquid Hydrogen/External AirLH/Air143.00039.72310.100 2.806 
Compressed Hydrogen/Compressed OxygenCH/CO15.990 4.442 3.734 1.037 
Liquid Hydrogen/Liquid OxygenLH/LO15.990 4.442 3.748 1.041 

Comments : the by-product is water, which could be vented into the outlet, or, if burned with oxygen, condensed and stored.

10.4. Diesel burned with Air

Material Abrev Energy
by Mass
Energy
by Volume
Comment
MJ/kg kWH/kg MJ/L kWH/L
Diesel/AirDsl/Air46.20012.83337.30010.361 

The Wiki Energy density table indicates that diesel has a slightly higher energy content than gasoline.

Diesel or Gasoline would produce large quantities of fumes, which would be very hard to hide from observers. It might be possible to vent it into the steam outlet.

10.5. Boron burned with Air or Oxygen

This method uses Boron, burned with external air, compressed Oxygen or Liquid Oxygen, forming solid Boron Trioxide, which can remain in the unit.

Material Abrev Energy
by Mass
Energy
by Volume
Comment
MJ/kg kWH/kg MJ/L kWH/L
Boron/External AirB/Air58.90016.361137.80038.278 
Boron/Compressed OxygenB/CO18.293 5.08116.131 4.481 
Boron/Liquid OxygenB/LO18.293 5.08123.345 6.485 

Boron is hard to ignite in air. Even in Oxygen it has to be raised to a high temperature. It is not clear whether non-toxic, glassy Boron Trioxide is formed by burning, or whether toxic BO and BO2 compounds are formed.

It might only be feasible to burn powdered Boron : we assume that solid Boron is used.

10.6. Aluminum burned with Air or Oxygen

This method uses Aluminum, burned with external air, compressed Oxygen or Liquid Oxygen, forming oxides, which can remain in the unit.

Aluminum is easier to ignite than Boron.

Its energy density is less than Boron, so it would be easier to detect. As with Boron, it might only burn in powdered form.

10.7. Beryllium burned with Air or Oxygen

This method uses Beryllium, burned with external air, compressed Oxygen or Liquid Oxygen, forming oxides, which can remain in the unit.

Beryllium is easier to ignite than Boron, but both Beryllium and its combustion products are extremely toxic.

10.8. Magnesium and Steam

Reactions of Metals and Water

Magnesium combines with STEAM to produce Magnesium Oxide and Hydrogen.

Mg + H2O ==> MgO + H2

The hydrogen can then be burned with Air or Oxygen to produce water.

An initial amount of water can be boiled using the internal resistors, and then the resultant steam can be recycled.

Material Abrev Energy
by Mass
Energy
by Volume
Comment
MJ/kg kWH/kg MJ/L kWH/L
Magnesium/SteamMg/Steam24.884 6.91243.24812.013 

10.9. Explosives

One might expect that Explosives would contain a lot of energy. In fact, most of them do not. For instance, Nitroglycerine only contains 10 MJ/L, compared to Boron/External Air, which has 138 MJ/L. They just release their energy very quickly.

10.10. Compressed or Liquid Hydrogen and Oxygen

These ABSORB energy when decompressed or evaporated. It is presumed that this is obtained from the ambient air.

10.11. Previously Unknown Chemical Reactions

Rossi has indicated that the reactor chamber has to be re-charged every six months.

A chemical reaction which can produce 10kW for 18 hours (let alone 6 months) would be as big a break-through in Chemistry as a LENR device would be in Physics.

10.12. Other suggested fakes (Pending analysis)

This section lists fakes which have been suggested by readers, but which have not yet been evaluated.

  • Krzysztof Dydak : The reactor could contain Raney Nickel/air fuel cell fed with hydrazine dissolved in water with caustic.

11. Other Fixed-Energy Methods

11.1. Pre-loaded Heat Sink

Proposed By : Rothwell (Rossi credibility)

The entire volume is composed of a material with high specific heat.

See Heat capacity, which has an entry for Volumetric Heat Capacity J·cm−3·K−1

Material Specific
Heat
Maximum
Temperature
Minimum
Temperature
MJ/
Liter
Comments
Water 4.21 100 14 0.36206 Boils
Be 3.38 1287 14 4.30274 Melts. Poisonous
Iron 3.53 1538 14 5.37972 Melts
Lead 1.44 327.46 14 0.4513824 Melts

Beryllium and Iron are selected for their high specific heat values. Water and lead are included because they are known to be constituents of the main unit.

These values are loaded into a material table:

Material Abrev Energy
by Mass
Energy
by Volume
Comment
MJ/kg kWH/kg MJ/L kWH/L
SPH WaterSPH Water-- 0.362 0.101 
SPH BeSPH Be-- 4.303 1.195 
SPH IronSPH Iron-- 5.380 1.494 
SPH LeadSPH Lead-- 0.451 0.125 

Note that the heat capacity might also explain "heat after death", when the output power continues after the inputs are turned off.

This fake must be entirely contained in the main body of the apparatus.

The upper temperatures are set to the boiling point of water, or for other materials, their melting point.

11.2. Input Water Diversion

Proposed by : Rothwell

The water which is pumped INTO the system is NOT all sent into the heat exchanger, but some is diverted into storage.

For example, if the observed output power is 10 times the input power, and only 1/10 the water is converted to steam then the apparent output will be FAKE. It can run until the diverted 9/10 of the water fills the reservoir.

As an UPPER limit, presume that the ENTIRE flow is diverted.

Maximum run time = volume / flow_rate

  Sections Volume
(liters)
Flow
(liters/hr)
Time
to
Fill (Hrs)
Jan Horz and Vert 31.00 17.50 1.77
Feb Horz 22.00 3000.00 0.01
Mar Horz 14.73 6.47 2.28

12. Unlimited-Energy Methods

These have the characteristic that they can run for an unlimited time.

Instead of calculating how long they could run, one has to calculate what is is needed to produce the observed power.

12.1. Hidden Wires or Tubes

It has been suggested that hidden wires could have provided the observed power (Rothwell: Hidden wire hypothesis redux). This can only be eliminated by inspecting the apparatus.

Similarly, a small tube could supply gas to the unit (Rothwell: Vortex List) --- although other methods might detect this (change of weight, imbalance between input and output volumes).

The January experiment was fully open to inspection. There were clearly no hidden wires capable of carrying 10kW or any tubes.

12.2. Heat Pump

KitemanSA on the polywell forum. suggested that a heat pump could have provided the observed power.

If these numbers are true, then even with a perfect heat pump, the output power (given max Coefficient of Performance and 80W input) could only be ~4.6kW.

CoP ~ T/ΔT ~300/5 = 60
60*80 = 4800 = 4.6kW

So unless there is significant measurement error or fraud, this isn't a heat pump device either.


Actually...

if the room was at typical room temperature, which is ~21 ºC, the theoretical CoP would be infinite, so it COULD be a fancy heat pump.

The Wiki article indicates that the maximum CoP in a Carnot Cycle might be as low as 12.5

The January experiment would have needed a CoP of 31, and the February experiment would need 200.

A theoretical, infinite-CoP heat pump could probably only be ruled out by enclosing the entire Main Unit in a calorimeter. If this were filled with Nitrogen, it would also rule out any method using Air as a fuel.

12.3. Nuclear : Plutonium 238

One gram of Plutonium 238 generates approximately 0.5 watts of power.

Material Abrev Power
by
Mass
kW/kg
Power
by
Volume
kW/L
Specific
gravity
Plutonium 238Pu238 0.500 0.000 0.000

To produce 10 kW of power one would need 5.00 kg of Pu 238.

Since 1993, all of the plutonium-238 the U.S. has used in space probes has been purchased from Russia. 16.5 kilograms in total have been purchased.

For the proposed 1 MW unit, one needs 500.00 kg -- more than was acquired by NASA.

Note : the Wiki Energy Density value is very high : it is probably the total energy emitted until the Plutonium is effectively depleted.

13. Experiments -- FAKES by VOLUME

For each type of fake, various "experiments" are defined, with individual sections loaded with fake materials.

For each combination of materials, five experiments are evaluated:

  • The January Power and Duration, with ALL sections, including the Control Box, filled with fake material
  • The January Power and Duration, with the Main Unit filled with fake material. Levi's statement that the control box "weighed a few kg" and therefore cannot contain fake material, is accepted.
  • The February Power and Duration, with the Horizontal Arm filled with fake material. Levi's statements about the control box and the vertical arm are accepted.
  • The February Power and Duration, with an ESTIMATE of the volume of the whole reactor.
  • The February Power and Duration, with Levi's description of the volume of the reactor CHAMBER..

13.1. Lithium Ion Batteries

Control Box: Lithium-Ion Batteries Main Unit: Lithium-Ion Batteries
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material L-i B L-i B L-i B Fake Expt
Energy 60.0  kWH 22.0  kWH 9.00  kWH 91.0  kWH 10.0  kW 9.10  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with ALL sections
Main Unit: Lithium-Ion Batteries
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material - L-i B L-i B Fake Expt
Energy 22.0  kWH 9.00  kWH 31.0  kWH 10.0  kW 3.10  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with MAIN unit -- excluding Control Box
Horizontal Arm: Lithium-Ion Batteries
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - L-i B - Fake Expt
Energy 22.0  kWH 22.0  kWH 16.0  kW 1.38  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: Lithium-Ion Batteries
Section Ctrl React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - L-i B - Fake Expt
Energy 11.0  kWH 11.0  kWH 16.0  kW 0.688  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: Lithium-Ion Batteries
Section Ctrl Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - L-i B - Fake Expt
Energy 1.00  kWH 1.00  kWH 16.0  kW 0.0625  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with reactor CHAMBER volume
Horizontal Arm: Lithium-Ion Batteries
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material L-i B - - Fake Expt
Energy 14.7  kWH 14.7  kWH 4.39  kW 3.35  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: Lithium-Ion Batteries
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - L-i B - Fake Expt
Energy 0.180  kWH 0.180  kWH 4.39  kW 0.0409  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: Lithium-Ion Batteries
Section Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - L-i B - Fake Expt
Energy 0.0500  kWH 0.0500  kWH 4.39  kW 0.0114  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with reactor CHAMBER volume
FAKE? means that the fake could run longer than the experiment, and is NOT eliminated
REAL means that the fake is ELIMINATED by an experiment, so the device could be REAL

13.2. Hydrogen

Controller contains a Hydrogen Fuel Cell, Main unit burns Hydrogen.

Liquid Hydrogen and external Air are the most favorable for a fake.

Control Box: Liquid Hydrogen/External Air Fuel Cell Main Unit: Liquid Hydrogen/External Air
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material LH/Air-FC LH/Air LH/Air Fake Expt
Energy 168  kWH 61.7  kWH 25.3  kWH 255  kWH 10.0  kW 25.5  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with ALL sections
Main Unit: Liquid Hydrogen/External Air
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material - LH/Air LH/Air Fake Expt
Energy 61.7  kWH 25.3  kWH 87.0  kWH 10.0  kW 8.70  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with MAIN unit -- excluding Control Box
Horizontal Arm: Liquid Hydrogen/External Air
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - LH/Air - Fake Expt
Energy 61.7  kWH 61.7  kWH 16.0  kW 3.86  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: Liquid Hydrogen/External Air
Section Ctrl React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - LH/Air - Fake Expt
Energy 30.9  kWH 30.9  kWH 16.0  kW 1.93  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: Liquid Hydrogen/External Air
Section Ctrl Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - LH/Air - Fake Expt
Energy 2.81  kWH 2.81  kWH 16.0  kW 0.175  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with reactor CHAMBER volume
Horizontal Arm: Liquid Hydrogen/External Air
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material LH/Air - - Fake Expt
Energy 41.3  kWH 41.3  kWH 4.39  kW 9.41  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: Liquid Hydrogen/External Air
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - LH/Air - Fake Expt
Energy 0.504  kWH 0.504  kWH 4.39  kW 0.115  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: Liquid Hydrogen/External Air
Section Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - LH/Air - Fake Expt
Energy 0.140  kWH 0.140  kWH 4.39  kW 0.0320  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with reactor CHAMBER volume
FAKE? means that the fake could run longer than the experiment, and is NOT eliminated
REAL means that the fake is ELIMINATED by an experiment, so the device could be REAL

Compressed Hydrogen, External Air

Control Box: Compressed Hydrogen/External Air Fuel Cell Main Unit: Compressed Hydrogen/External Air
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material CH/Air-FC CH/Air CH/Air Fake Expt
Energy 93.3  kWH 34.2  kWH 14.0  kWH 142  kWH 10.0  kW 14.2  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with ALL sections
Main Unit: Compressed Hydrogen/External Air
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material - CH/Air CH/Air Fake Expt
Energy 34.2  kWH 14.0  kWH 48.2  kWH 10.0  kW 4.82  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with MAIN unit -- excluding Control Box
Horizontal Arm: Compressed Hydrogen/External Air
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - CH/Air - Fake Expt
Energy 34.2  kWH 34.2  kWH 16.0  kW 2.14  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: Compressed Hydrogen/External Air
Section Ctrl React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - CH/Air - Fake Expt
Energy 17.1  kWH 17.1  kWH 16.0  kW 1.07  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: Compressed Hydrogen/External Air
Section Ctrl Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - CH/Air - Fake Expt
Energy 1.56  kWH 1.56  kWH 16.0  kW 0.0972  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with reactor CHAMBER volume
Horizontal Arm: Compressed Hydrogen/External Air
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material CH/Air - - Fake Expt
Energy 22.9  kWH 22.9  kWH 4.39  kW 5.22  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: Compressed Hydrogen/External Air
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - CH/Air - Fake Expt
Energy 0.279  kWH 0.279  kWH 4.39  kW 0.0636  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: Compressed Hydrogen/External Air
Section Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - CH/Air - Fake Expt
Energy 0.0778  kWH 0.0778  kWH 4.39  kW 0.0177  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with reactor CHAMBER volume
FAKE? means that the fake could run longer than the experiment, and is NOT eliminated
REAL means that the fake is ELIMINATED by an experiment, so the device could be REAL

Compressed Hydrogen, Compressed Oxygen

Control Box: Compressed Hydrogen/Compressed Oxygen Fuel Cell Main Unit: Compressed Hydrogen/Compressed Oxygen
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material CH/CO-FC CH/CO CH/CO Fake Expt
Energy 62.2  kWH 22.8  kWH 9.34  kWH 94.4  kWH 10.0  kW 9.44  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with ALL sections
Main Unit: Compressed Hydrogen/Compressed Oxygen
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material - CH/CO CH/CO Fake Expt
Energy 22.8  kWH 9.34  kWH 32.2  kWH 10.0  kW 3.22  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with MAIN unit -- excluding Control Box
Horizontal Arm: Compressed Hydrogen/Compressed Oxygen
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - CH/CO - Fake Expt
Energy 22.8  kWH 22.8  kWH 16.0  kW 1.43  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: Compressed Hydrogen/Compressed Oxygen
Section Ctrl React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - CH/CO - Fake Expt
Energy 11.4  kWH 11.4  kWH 16.0  kW 0.713  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: Compressed Hydrogen/Compressed Oxygen
Section Ctrl Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - CH/CO - Fake Expt
Energy 1.04  kWH 1.04  kWH 16.0  kW 0.0648  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with reactor CHAMBER volume
Horizontal Arm: Compressed Hydrogen/Compressed Oxygen
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material CH/CO - - Fake Expt
Energy 15.3  kWH 15.3  kWH 4.39  kW 3.48  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: Compressed Hydrogen/Compressed Oxygen
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - CH/CO - Fake Expt
Energy 0.186  kWH 0.186  kWH 4.39  kW 0.0424  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: Compressed Hydrogen/Compressed Oxygen
Section Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - CH/CO - Fake Expt
Energy 0.0519  kWH 0.0519  kWH 4.39  kW 0.0118  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with reactor CHAMBER volume
FAKE? means that the fake could run longer than the experiment, and is NOT eliminated
REAL means that the fake is ELIMINATED by an experiment, so the device could be REAL

Liquid Hydrogen, Liquid Oxygen

Control Box: Liquid Hydrogen/Liquid Oxygen Fuel Cell Main Unit: Liquid Hydrogen/Liquid Oxygen
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material LH/LO-FC LH/LO LH/LO Fake Expt
Energy 62.5  kWH 22.9  kWH 9.37  kWH 94.7  kWH 10.0  kW 9.47  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with ALL sections
Main Unit: Liquid Hydrogen/Liquid Oxygen
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material - LH/LO LH/LO Fake Expt
Energy 22.9  kWH 9.37  kWH 32.3  kWH 10.0  kW 3.23  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with MAIN unit -- excluding Control Box
Horizontal Arm: Liquid Hydrogen/Liquid Oxygen
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - LH/LO - Fake Expt
Energy 22.9  kWH 22.9  kWH 16.0  kW 1.43  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: Liquid Hydrogen/Liquid Oxygen
Section Ctrl React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - LH/LO - Fake Expt
Energy 11.5  kWH 11.5  kWH 16.0  kW 0.716  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: Liquid Hydrogen/Liquid Oxygen
Section Ctrl Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - LH/LO - Fake Expt
Energy 1.04  kWH 1.04  kWH 16.0  kW 0.0651  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with reactor CHAMBER volume
Horizontal Arm: Liquid Hydrogen/Liquid Oxygen
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material LH/LO - - Fake Expt
Energy 15.3  kWH 15.3  kWH 4.39  kW 3.49  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: Liquid Hydrogen/Liquid Oxygen
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - LH/LO - Fake Expt
Energy 0.187  kWH 0.187  kWH 4.39  kW 0.0426  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: Liquid Hydrogen/Liquid Oxygen
Section Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - LH/LO - Fake Expt
Energy 0.0521  kWH 0.0521  kWH 4.39  kW 0.0119  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with reactor CHAMBER volume
FAKE? means that the fake could run longer than the experiment, and is NOT eliminated
REAL means that the fake is ELIMINATED by an experiment, so the device could be REAL

13.3. Diesel Fuel

Controller contains a Hydrogen Fuel Cell, Main unit burns Diesel.

For both, external Air is the most favorable for a fake.

Control Box: Liquid Hydrogen/External Air Fuel Cell Main Unit: Diesel/Air
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material LH/Air-FC Dsl/Air Dsl/Air Fake Expt
Energy 168  kWH 228  kWH 93.3  kWH 490  kWH 10.0  kW 49.0  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with ALL sections
Main Unit: Diesel/Air
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material - Dsl/Air Dsl/Air Fake Expt
Energy 228  kWH 93.3  kWH 321  kWH 10.0  kW 32.1  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with MAIN unit -- excluding Control Box
Horizontal Arm: Diesel/Air
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - Dsl/Air - Fake Expt
Energy 228  kWH 228  kWH 16.0  kW 14.2  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: Diesel/Air
Section Ctrl React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - Dsl/Air - Fake Expt
Energy 114  kWH 114  kWH 16.0  kW 7.12  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: Diesel/Air
Section Ctrl Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - Dsl/Air - Fake Expt
Energy 10.4  kWH 10.4  kWH 16.0  kW 0.648  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with reactor CHAMBER volume
Horizontal Arm: Diesel/Air
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material Dsl/Air - - Fake Expt
Energy 153  kWH 153  kWH 4.39  kW 34.8  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: Diesel/Air
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - Dsl/Air - Fake Expt
Energy 1.86  kWH 1.86  kWH 4.39  kW 0.424  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: Diesel/Air
Section Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - Dsl/Air - Fake Expt
Energy 0.518  kWH 0.518  kWH 4.39  kW 0.118  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with reactor CHAMBER volume
FAKE? means that the fake could run longer than the experiment, and is NOT eliminated
REAL means that the fake is ELIMINATED by an experiment, so the device could be REAL

13.4. Boron and Air or Oxygen

Controller contains a Hydrogen Fuel Cell (Liquid Hydrogen/Air), Main unit burns Boron with Air.

Control Box: Liquid Hydrogen/External Air Fuel Cell Main Unit: Boron/External Air
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material LH/Air-FC B/Air B/Air Fake Expt
Energy 168  kWH 842  kWH 345  kWH 1355  kWH 10.0  kW 135  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with ALL sections
Main Unit: Boron/External Air
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material - B/Air B/Air Fake Expt
Energy 842  kWH 345  kWH 1187  kWH 10.0  kW 119  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with MAIN unit -- excluding Control Box
Horizontal Arm: Boron/External Air
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material - B/Air - Fake Expt
Energy 842  kWH 842  kWH 16.0  kW 52.6  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: Boron/External Air
Section Ctrl React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material - B/Air - Fake Expt
Energy 421  kWH 421  kWH 16.0  kW 26.3  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: Boron/External Air
Section Ctrl Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - B/Air - Fake Expt
Energy 38.3  kWH 38.3  kWH 16.0  kW 2.39  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with reactor CHAMBER volume
Horizontal Arm: Boron/External Air
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material B/Air - - Fake Expt
Energy 564  kWH 564  kWH 4.39  kW 128  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: Boron/External Air
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - B/Air - Fake Expt
Energy 6.87  kWH 6.87  kWH 4.39  kW 1.57  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: Boron/External Air
Section Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - B/Air - Fake Expt
Energy 1.91  kWH 1.91  kWH 4.39  kW 0.436  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with reactor CHAMBER volume
FAKE? means that the fake could run longer than the experiment, and is NOT eliminated
REAL means that the fake is ELIMINATED by an experiment, so the device could be REAL

Controller contains a Hydrogen Fuel Cell (Liquid Hydrogen/Air), Main unit burns Boron with Compressed Oxygen.

Control Box: Liquid Hydrogen/External Air Fuel Cell Main Unit: Boron/Compressed Oxygen
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material LH/Air-FC B/CO B/CO Fake Expt
Energy 168  kWH 98.6  kWH 40.3  kWH 307  kWH 10.0  kW 30.7  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with ALL sections
Main Unit: Boron/Compressed Oxygen
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material - B/CO B/CO Fake Expt
Energy 98.6  kWH 40.3  kWH 139  kWH 10.0  kW 13.9  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with MAIN unit -- excluding Control Box
Horizontal Arm: Boron/Compressed Oxygen
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - B/CO - Fake Expt
Energy 98.6  kWH 98.6  kWH 16.0  kW 6.16  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: Boron/Compressed Oxygen
Section Ctrl React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - B/CO - Fake Expt
Energy 49.3  kWH 49.3  kWH 16.0  kW 3.08  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: Boron/Compressed Oxygen
Section Ctrl Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - B/CO - Fake Expt
Energy 4.48  kWH 4.48  kWH 16.0  kW 0.280  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with reactor CHAMBER volume
Horizontal Arm: Boron/Compressed Oxygen
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material B/CO - - Fake Expt
Energy 66.0  kWH 66.0  kWH 4.39  kW 15.0  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: Boron/Compressed Oxygen
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - B/CO - Fake Expt
Energy 0.805  kWH 0.805  kWH 4.39  kW 0.183  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: Boron/Compressed Oxygen
Section Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - B/CO - Fake Expt
Energy 0.224  kWH 0.224  kWH 4.39  kW 0.0510  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with reactor CHAMBER volume
FAKE? means that the fake could run longer than the experiment, and is NOT eliminated
REAL means that the fake is ELIMINATED by an experiment, so the device could be REAL

Controller contains a Hydrogen Fuel Cell (Liquid Hydrogen/Air), Main unit burns Boron with Liquid Oxygen.

Control Box: Liquid Hydrogen/External Air Fuel Cell Main Unit: Boron/Liquid Oxygen
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material LH/Air-FC B/LO B/LO Fake Expt
Energy 168  kWH 143  kWH 58.4  kWH 369  kWH 10.0  kW 36.9  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with ALL sections
Main Unit: Boron/Liquid Oxygen
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material - B/LO B/LO Fake Expt
Energy 143  kWH 58.4  kWH 201  kWH 10.0  kW 20.1  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with MAIN unit -- excluding Control Box
Horizontal Arm: Boron/Liquid Oxygen
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - B/LO - Fake Expt
Energy 143  kWH 143  kWH 16.0  kW 8.92  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: Boron/Liquid Oxygen
Section Ctrl React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - B/LO - Fake Expt
Energy 71.3  kWH 71.3  kWH 16.0  kW 4.46  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: Boron/Liquid Oxygen
Section Ctrl Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - B/LO - Fake Expt
Energy 6.48  kWH 6.48  kWH 16.0  kW 0.405  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with reactor CHAMBER volume
Horizontal Arm: Boron/Liquid Oxygen
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material B/LO - - Fake Expt
Energy 95.5  kWH 95.5  kWH 4.39  kW 21.8  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: Boron/Liquid Oxygen
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - B/LO - Fake Expt
Energy 1.16  kWH 1.16  kWH 4.39  kW 0.265  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: Boron/Liquid Oxygen
Section Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - B/LO - Fake Expt
Energy 0.324  kWH 0.324  kWH 4.39  kW 0.0739  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with reactor CHAMBER volume
FAKE? means that the fake could run longer than the experiment, and is NOT eliminated
REAL means that the fake is ELIMINATED by an experiment, so the device could be REAL

13.5. Magnesium and Steam

Controller contains a Hydrogen Fuel Cell (Liquid Hydrogen/Air), Main unit burns Magnesium in Steam, producing Hydrogen, which is burned with external Air.

Control Box: Liquid Hydrogen/External Air Fuel Cell Main Unit: Magnesium/Steam
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material LH/Air-FC Mg/Steam Mg/Steam Fake Expt
Energy 168  kWH 264  kWH 108  kWH 541  kWH 10.0  kW 54.1  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with ALL sections
Main Unit: Magnesium/Steam
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material - Mg/Steam Mg/Steam Fake Expt
Energy 264  kWH 108  kWH 372  kWH 10.0  kW 37.2  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with MAIN unit -- excluding Control Box
Horizontal Arm: Magnesium/Steam
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - Mg/Steam - Fake Expt
Energy 264  kWH 264  kWH 16.0  kW 16.5  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: Magnesium/Steam
Section Ctrl React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - Mg/Steam - Fake Expt
Energy 132  kWH 132  kWH 16.0  kW 8.26  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: Magnesium/Steam
Section Ctrl Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - Mg/Steam - Fake Expt
Energy 12.0  kWH 12.0  kWH 16.0  kW 0.751  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with reactor CHAMBER volume
Horizontal Arm: Magnesium/Steam
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material Mg/Steam - - Fake Expt
Energy 177  kWH 177  kWH 4.39  kW 40.3  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: Magnesium/Steam
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - Mg/Steam - Fake Expt
Energy 2.16  kWH 2.16  kWH 4.39  kW 0.491  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: Magnesium/Steam
Section Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - Mg/Steam - Fake Expt
Energy 0.601  kWH 0.601  kWH 4.39  kW 0.137  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with reactor CHAMBER volume
FAKE? means that the fake could run longer than the experiment, and is NOT eliminated
REAL means that the fake is ELIMINATED by an experiment, so the device could be REAL

13.6. Water Heat Sink

The entire volume of the main unit is a water heat sink. Note that this cannot BOIL the water for the January experiment.

Control Box: Liquid Hydrogen/External Air Fuel Cell Main Unit: SPH Water
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material LH/Air-FC SPH Water SPH Water Fake Expt
Energy 168  kWH 2.21  kWH 0.905  kWH 171  kWH 10.0  kW 17.1  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with ALL sections
Main Unit: SPH Water
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Water SPH Water Fake Expt
Energy 2.21  kWH 0.905  kWH 3.12  kWH 10.0  kW 0.312  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with MAIN unit -- excluding Control Box
Horizontal Arm: SPH Water
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Water - Fake Expt
Energy 2.21  kWH 2.21  kWH 16.0  kW 0.138  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: SPH Water
Section Ctrl React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Water - Fake Expt
Energy 1.11  kWH 1.11  kWH 16.0  kW 0.0691  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: SPH Water
Section Ctrl Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Water - Fake Expt
Energy 0.101  kWH 0.101  kWH 16.0  kW 0.00629  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with reactor CHAMBER volume
Horizontal Arm: SPH Water
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material SPH Water - - Fake Expt
Energy 1.48  kWH 1.48  kWH 4.39  kW 0.337  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: SPH Water
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Water - Fake Expt
Energy 0.0181  kWH 0.0181  kWH 4.39  kW 0.00411  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: SPH Water
Section Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Water - Fake Expt
Energy 0.00503  kWH 0.00503  kWH 4.39  kW 0.00115  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with reactor CHAMBER volume
FAKE? means that the fake could run longer than the experiment, and is NOT eliminated
REAL means that the fake is ELIMINATED by an experiment, so the device could be REAL

13.7. Beryllium Heat Sink

The entire volume of the main unit is a Beryllium Heat Sink ... pre-heated to its melting point.

Control Box: Liquid Hydrogen/External Air Fuel Cell Main Unit: SPH Be
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material LH/Air-FC SPH Be SPH Be Fake Expt
Energy 168  kWH 26.3  kWH 10.8  kWH 205  kWH 10.0  kW 20.5  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with ALL sections
Main Unit: SPH Be
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material - SPH Be SPH Be Fake Expt
Energy 26.3  kWH 10.8  kWH 37.1  kWH 10.0  kW 3.71  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with MAIN unit -- excluding Control Box
Horizontal Arm: SPH Be
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Be - Fake Expt
Energy 26.3  kWH 26.3  kWH 16.0  kW 1.64  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: SPH Be
Section Ctrl React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Be - Fake Expt
Energy 13.1  kWH 13.1  kWH 16.0  kW 0.822  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: SPH Be
Section Ctrl Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Be - Fake Expt
Energy 1.20  kWH 1.20  kWH 16.0  kW 0.0747  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with reactor CHAMBER volume
Horizontal Arm: SPH Be
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material SPH Be - - Fake Expt
Energy 17.6  kWH 17.6  kWH 4.39  kW 4.01  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: SPH Be
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Be - Fake Expt
Energy 0.215  kWH 0.215  kWH 4.39  kW 0.0489  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: SPH Be
Section Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Be - Fake Expt
Energy 0.0598  kWH 0.0598  kWH 4.39  kW 0.0136  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with reactor CHAMBER volume
FAKE? means that the fake could run longer than the experiment, and is NOT eliminated
REAL means that the fake is ELIMINATED by an experiment, so the device could be REAL

13.8. Iron Heat Sink

The entire volume of the main unit is an Iron Heat Sink ... pre-heated to its melting point.

Control Box: Liquid Hydrogen/External Air Fuel Cell Main Unit: SPH Iron
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material LH/Air-FC SPH Iron SPH Iron Fake Expt
Energy 168  kWH 32.9  kWH 13.4  kWH 215  kWH 10.0  kW 21.5  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with ALL sections
Main Unit: SPH Iron
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material - SPH Iron SPH Iron Fake Expt
Energy 32.9  kWH 13.4  kWH 46.3  kWH 10.0  kW 4.63  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with MAIN unit -- excluding Control Box
Horizontal Arm: SPH Iron
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Iron - Fake Expt
Energy 32.9  kWH 32.9  kWH 16.0  kW 2.05  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: SPH Iron
Section Ctrl React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Iron - Fake Expt
Energy 16.4  kWH 16.4  kWH 16.0  kW 1.03  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: SPH Iron
Section Ctrl Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Iron - Fake Expt
Energy 1.49  kWH 1.49  kWH 16.0  kW 0.0934  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with reactor CHAMBER volume
Horizontal Arm: SPH Iron
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material SPH Iron - - Fake Expt
Energy 22.0  kWH 22.0  kWH 4.39  kW 5.01  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: SPH Iron
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Iron - Fake Expt
Energy 0.268  kWH 0.268  kWH 4.39  kW 0.0611  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: SPH Iron
Section Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Iron - Fake Expt
Energy 0.0747  kWH 0.0747  kWH 4.39  kW 0.0170  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with reactor CHAMBER volume
FAKE? means that the fake could run longer than the experiment, and is NOT eliminated
REAL means that the fake is ELIMINATED by an experiment, so the device could be REAL

13.9. Lead Heat Sink

The entire volume of the main unit is an Lead Heat Sink ... pre-heated to its melting point.

Control Box: Liquid Hydrogen/External Air Fuel Cell Main Unit: SPH Lead
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
FAKE?
Material LH/Air-FC SPH Lead SPH Lead Fake Expt
Energy 168  kWH 2.76  kWH 1.13  kWH 172  kWH 10.0  kW 17.2  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with ALL sections
Main Unit: SPH Lead
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Lead SPH Lead Fake Expt
Energy 2.76  kWH 1.13  kWH 3.89  kWH 10.0  kW 0.389  Hrs 0.500  Hrs
January with MAIN unit -- excluding Control Box
Horizontal Arm: SPH Lead
Section Ctrl Horz Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Lead - Fake Expt
Energy 2.76  kWH 2.76  kWH 16.0  kW 0.172  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: SPH Lead
Section Ctrl React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Lead - Fake Expt
Energy 1.38  kWH 1.38  kWH 16.0  kW 0.0862  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: SPH Lead
Section Ctrl Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Lead - Fake Expt
Energy 0.125  kWH 0.125  kWH 16.0  kW 0.00784  Hrs 18.0  Hrs
February with reactor CHAMBER volume
Horizontal Arm: SPH Lead
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material SPH Lead - - Fake Expt
Energy 1.85  kWH 1.85  kWH 4.39  kW 0.421  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with HORIZONTAL unit
Reactor: SPH Lead
Section Horz React Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Lead - Fake Expt
Energy 0.0225  kWH 0.0225  kWH 4.39  kW 0.00513  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with ESTIMATED reactor volume
Reactor chamber: SPH Lead
Section Chamber Vert Fake
Energy
Expt
Power
REAL
Material - SPH Lead - Fake Expt
Energy 0.00627  kWH 0.00627  kWH 4.39  kW 0.00143  Hrs 5.75  Hrs
March with reactor CHAMBER volume
FAKE? means that the fake could run longer than the experiment, and is NOT eliminated
REAL means that the fake is ELIMINATED by an experiment, so the device could be REAL

14. Experiments -- FAKES by WEIGHT

At present we have no independent measurements of the weight of the various parts of the eCat.

15. Rothwell's Razor

This is a variation of (the usually misquoted) Occam's razor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

... the razor is a principle that suggests we should tend towards simpler theories ... until we can trade some simplicity for increased explanatory power. Contrary to the popular summary, the simplest available theory is sometimes a less accurate explanation.

It is very tempting to propose elaborate schemes by which a fake eCat could be detected. For instance, in the author's physorg.com posts he suggested feeding it a brew of various isotopes of water to make sure that the SAME water goes in and comes out.

However, in the Vortex mailing list Re: [Vo]:Hidden wire hypothesis redux

Jed Rothwell suggests in response to another comment:

This is my point, there may be a million things you haven't thought of.

Nope. That does not work. A good experiment cannot have a million possible problems. If we had to think up a million ways that an experiment might be wrong (or fake -- pretty much the same thing) then no experiment would ever prove anything, and there would be no progress.

A bad experiment can have a large number of possible errors (or ways to make it fake).

....

Flow calorimetry experiments similar to this, with boiling water or flowing water, have been done many times. The potential errors are well understood and their number is strictly limited -- unless you are aiming for the kind of precision SRI achieved.

In an experiment with only 4 main parameters -- input power, inlet temperature, outlet temperature and flow rate -- the number of potential significant errors will [be] small, and so will the number of ways deliberately fake data can be surreptitiously introduced. When the method is complicated, and the results close to the margin, with many parameters with, for example, the possibility of recombination producing a significant error, then there are many ways an error can creep in, and many ways to deliberately introduce fake data.

Complexity and a low s/n ratio invite error, misinterpretation or fraud.

16. Conclusion (Needs updating for the March experiment)

Since the December/January experiments only recorded the inputs and outputs for a short time (30 minutes), almost ANY of the fakes could have produced the result.

For the February experiment Levi was allowed to inspect everything, EXCLUDING only the 1-liter reactor chamber.

Neither the January or February experiments can rule out a Heat Pump which exceeds known efficiencies by a factor of 100 (or even higher, if the 130kW peak output could be sustained). An eCat doing this would be as important an engineering breakthrough as an LENR device. Similarly, a previously-unknown chemical reaction which can produce 10kW for 6 months from a 1 liter source would be an equally important discovery in chemistry. As Sherlock Holmes said in Silver Blaze:

... and improbable as it is, all other explanations are more improbable still.

The "Proof" that the device is real currently rests on Levi's informal description: if you accept all of Levi's February report, then all fakes are conclusively ruled out. Or as Sherlock Holmes repeatedly said (in The Adventure of the Bruce-Partington Plans):

“We must fall back upon the old axiom that when all other contingencies fail, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth. Here all other contingencies have failed.

17. Discussion

This paper considers UPPER BOUNDS for what a Fake could achieve.

Any actual fake would run into engineering difficulties long before those limits were reached.

When designing a machine for propulsion or for electricity, thermodynamics is your enemy. The heat of friction, for instance, robs your output. But if your machine is simply heating water, then thermodynamics is your friend, or at least neutral.

But the limits of thermal efficiency are not THAT far off 100% : for instance, modern gas furnaces have an efficiency of over 95% (Furnaces and Boilers). Nor is the assumption that 100% of the weight or volume is fuel : advanced rockets such as the Proton UR-500 have a 95.6% fuel-to-dry-weight factor.

So any discussion of "implementation" is quibbling over less than 5%!

Because of the difficulty of measuring the results with steam (volume and content), future experiments should be used to heat the water (as in the February experiment). For this we need:

  • Input electrical power (BETWEEN the control panel and the reactor)
  • Input hydrogen (by weight)
  • Inlet temperature
  • Outlet temperature
  • Water volume
  • Total weight before
  • Total weight after
  • Heat pump requires an air calorimeter round the main unit
  • Sealed unit, to prevent drawing air as a fuel (calorimeter filled with Nitrogen)
    OR
    Thorough inspection to check for leaks

As much as possible of the unit should be open to inspection to reduce the volumes (or weights) in which fake material could be hidden, and thus shorten the time needed to eliminate fakes.

18. Calculations

18.1. Wiki Energy Densities

The Wiki of Energy Densities doesn't have entries for all cases where (for instance) Hydrogen is used with Compressed or Liquid Oxygen.

This section calculates how much the "wiki" Energy Densities by Mass and by Volume are reduced if the available space has to be shared between the Hydrogen and Oxygen.

 

18.2. Reference Documents

18.3. Atoms and Molecules

	H    mass 1.0071	
	H2   mass 2.0142 
	     Gas          Density : 8.988E-5 kg/L
	     Compressed   Density : 0.046647636700649 kg/L  (700 Bar)
	     Liquid       Density : 0.07099 kg/L
		 
	O    mass 15.999	
	O2   mass 31.998 
	     Gas          Density : 0.001429 kg/L
	     Compressed   Density : 0.74164967562558 kg/L  (700 Bar)
	     Liquid       Density : 1.141 kg/L
		 
	B    mass 10.811	
	     Solid  Density : 2.52 kg/L

18.4. Compressed hydrogen + Compressed Oxygen

Formula:  2 H2  + O2  ===> 2  H2O
H2 (Compressed H2)
O2 (Compressed O2)
H2 mass :   2 *  2.014 =  4.028
O2 mass :   1 * 31.998 = 31.998
Total mass :   36.026
H2 mass fac :  4.028 /  36.026 =  0.112	
O2 mass fac : 31.998 /  36.026 =  0.888
Volume : mass / density
H2 volume :   4.028 /  0.047 =  86.358
O2 volume :  31.998 /  0.742 =  43.144
Total vol :  129.502
H2 vol fac : 86.358/129.502 =  0.667	
O2 vol fac : 43.144/129.502 =  0.333 
	

18.5. Liquid hydrogen + Liquid Oxygen

Formula:  2 H2  + O2  ===> 2  H2O
H2 (Liquid H2)
O2 (Liquid O2)
H2 mass :   2 *  2.014 =  4.028
O2 mass :   1 * 31.998 = 31.998
Total mass :   36.026
H2 mass fac :  4.028 /  36.026 =  0.112	
O2 mass fac : 31.998 /  36.026 =  0.888
Volume : mass / density
H2 volume :   4.028 /  0.071 =  56.746
O2 volume :  31.998 /  1.141 =  28.044
Total vol :  84.790
H2 vol fac : 56.746/84.790 =  0.669	
O2 vol fac : 28.044/84.790 =  0.331 
	

18.6. Boron + Compressed Oxygen

Formula:  4 B  +  3 O2  ===> 2  B2O3
B (Solid B)
O2 (Compressed O2)
B mass :   4 * 10.811 = 43.244
O2 mass :   3 * 31.998 = 95.994
Total mass :   139.238
B mass fac : 43.244 /  139.238 =  0.311	
O2 mass fac : 95.994 /  139.238 =  0.689
Volume : mass / density
B volume :  43.244 /  2.520 =  17.160
O2 volume :  95.994 /  0.742 =  129.433
Total vol :  146.593
B vol fac : 17.160/146.593 =  0.117	
O2 vol fac : 129.433/146.593 =  0.883 
	

18.7. Boron + Liquid Oxygen

Formula:  4 B  +  3 O2  ===> 2  B2O3
B (Solid B)
O2 (Liquid O2)
B mass :   4 * 10.811 = 43.244
O2 mass :   3 * 31.998 = 95.994
Total mass :   139.238
B mass fac : 43.244 /  139.238 =  0.311	
O2 mass fac : 95.994 /  139.238 =  0.689
Volume : mass / density
B volume :  43.244 /  2.520 =  17.160
O2 volume :  95.994 /  1.141 =  84.131
Total vol :  101.292
B vol fac : 17.160/101.292 =  0.169	
O2 vol fac : 84.131/101.292 =  0.831 
	

18.8. Magnesium and Steam

Reactions of Metals and Water

Magnesium combines with STEAM to produce Magnesium Oxide and Hydrogen.

Mg + H2O ==>MgO + H2 dH  -360 kJ/mol

The hydrogen can then be burned with Air or Oxygen to produce water.
H2O: H2 (g) + 1/2 O2 (g) ==> H2O (l); dH = -285.8 kJ/mol
(Remove Latent Heat 41 kJ/mol = -285.8 + 41 kJ/mol )

Check math by comparing liquid H /External O2
Total (from H2) is -286 kJ/mol.
Atomic weight: 2.01 g/mol.
Density (L): 0.0710 g/cm3
Energy by mass : ( 286 kJ/mol)/(2.01g/mol )
= 142 kJ/g = 142 MJ/kg
Energy by volume: 10.1 MJ/L

Comparison to Wiki values

  Energy by Mass Energy by Volume
Wiki 143.000 10.100
Calculation 141.893 10.100

Total (from Mg/Steam + H/O) is -604.8 kJ/mol. Atomic weight : 24.305 g/mol Density : 1.738 g/cm3 Energy by mass : ( 605 kJ/mol) / (24.305 g/mol) = 24.9 kJ/g = 24.9 MJ/kg Energy by volume : 43.2 MJ/L
  
Total (from Ni/H) is -4.85 kJ/mol. Atomic weight : 58.6934 g/mol Density : 8.908 g/cm3 Energy by mass : (4.85 kJ/mol) / (58.6934 g/mol) = 0.0826 kJ/g = 0.0826 MJ/kg Energy by volume : 0.736 MJ/L

18.9. Embedded Calculations

All calculations in this document are performed with the PHP programming language which generates the document.

Partial PHP Source Code

19. Physorg Posts

These ideas were first noted in PhysOrg (posting as alanf777)

The 1,000-character posting limit made my comments rather hard to read), so I have extracted and clarified them in Physorg v1

20. Acknowledgements

Thanks to Jed Rothwell, Jeff Driscoll and Jones Beene on the "Vortex" mailing list for information, corrections and comments.

Oh, and thanks to Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, who really, really liked the phrase which Sherlock Holmes used more times than this paper has space for (in The Sign of the Four):

Eliminate all other factors, and the one which remains must be the truth.”